A. Definition of Student Learning Styles
Student learning styles are key to developing performance in learning. Each student must have different learning styles. Knowing these different student learning styles can help teachers in delivering learning materials to all students so that learning outcomes will be more effective.
According to Bobbi DePorter and Mike Hernacki in his Quantum Learning pages 110-111, learning styles are a combination of how he absorbs, and then organizes and processes information “.
Meanwhile, according to James and Gardner in his book “Learning Style” page 42 “learning style is a complex way in which students perceive and feel most effective and efficient in processing, storing and recalling what they have learned”.
Dunn and Dunn in his Educational Psychology (Sugihartono: 2007: 53 explains that: “learning styles are a collection of personal characteristics that make learning effective for some people and ineffective for others.” Meaningful learning styles relate to how children learn, Learning the most liked.
According to Nasution in his book Various Education in Teaching and Learning Process, (2009: 94) learning style is a consistent way done by a student in capturing the stimulus or information, how to remember, think and solve problems.
Based on some of the above definitions, learning styles can be summed up as a way of a person in receiving learning outcomes with an optimal level of acceptance compared with other ways. Everyone has their own learning styles. The introduction of learning styles is very important. For teachers by knowing the learning styles of each student then the teacher can apply appropriate techniques and strategies both in learning and in self-development. Only with the appropriate application will the success rate be higher. A student must also understand the type of learning style. Thus, he has had the ability to know himself better and know his needs. The introduction of learning styles will provide the right service to what and how best to be provided and done so that learning can take place optimally.
B. Type or Tife Student Learning Style
In reality, a person’s learning style is a combination of several learning styles. Here we recognize there are three learning styles, namely: visual learning style, auditory, and kinetetik. Each learning style is divided into two, namely: the external (depending on the external media as the source of information) and the internal (depending on how we manage the mind and imagination) (Didang, 2006).
Learning styles are the tendency of students to adapt specific strategies in their learning as a form of responsibility to obtain a learning approach that suits the demands of learning in the classroom / school as well as the demands of the subjects (Slamento, 2003).
Whereas in the book Quantum Learning, learning style sesorang only divided into 3 types or modalities of learning a person that is: 1) learning style or 2) learning style or visual modalities; 2) Auditory or kinesthetic learning style. The three learning styles are known as VAK. In practice each of us learns by using these three modlaitas at a certain stage, most people are more likely to be in one of the three.
1. Visual (learn by looking)
Visual learning style (visual learner) emphasizes the sharpness of the eyes / eyesight. That is, concrete evidence must be shown first so that students understand. The characteristics of students who have a visual learning style is a high need to see and also capture information visually before they understand it.
Students with visual learning styles more easily remember what they see, such as body language / facial expression, diagrams, picture textbooks and video, so they can understand well about position / location, shape, number, and color. Visual students tend to be neat and orderly and not bothered by the commotion, but they are difficult to accept ekspresi instructions.
Students who have a visual learning style capture lessons through pictorial material. In addition, he has a strong sensitivity to color, in addition to having a sufficient understanding of the artistic problem. It’s just that he usually has constraints to dialogue directly because it is too reactive to the sound, so it is difficult to follow the advice orally and often misinterpret the word or speech.
Visual acuity, more prominent in some people, is very powerful in a person. The reason is that “in the brain there are more devices for processing visual information than all other senses”. Meanwhile, according to the object “the perkara of vision is classified into three groups, which see the shape, look in and see the color”.
a) Characteristics of visual learning styles:
1) Talk rather quickly
2) Mementingkan appearance in dress / presentation
3) Not easily disturbed by the commotion
4) Given the views, rather than the heard
5) Prefer reading from reading
6) The reader is fast and diligent
7) Often know what to say, but not clever choose words
8) Prefer a demonstration rather than a speech
9) Prefers music rather than art
10) Have problems remembering ekspresi instructions unless written, and often ask people for help to repeat them
b) Strategies to simplify the visual learning process:
1. Use visual materials such as, drawings, diagrams and maps.
2. Use colors to filter out important things.
3. Encourage children to read illustrated books.
4. Use multi-media (eg computers and videos).
5. Encourage the child to try to illustrate his ideas into the picture.
2. Auditory learning style (learning by listening)
Auditory learning style has the ability to absorb information from the ear / hearing. Students who have an auditorial learning style can learn faster by using ekspresi discussions and listening to what the teacher says. Auditorial students have a sensitivity to music and either in oral activity, they speak with a patterned rhythm, usually fluent speakers, like to discuss and explain everything at length. Students with this type of learning style are easily distracted by noise and weakness in visual activity.
Appropriate learning method for learner model like this should pay attention to physical condition of learner. Children who have an auditory learning style can learn faster by using ekspresi discussions and listening to what the teacher says. Our auditory minds are stronger than we realize. Our ears continually capture and store auditory information, even without us knowing it. And “when we make our own voice by talking, some important areas of our brain become active”.
a) Characteristics of an auditory learning style:
1) When work likes bicaa to yourself
2) Neat appearance
3) Easily disturbed by the commotion
4) Learn by listening and remembering what is being discussed rather than viewed
5) Nice to read aloud and listen
6) Moving their lips and uttering the writing in the book while reading
7) Usually he is an eloquent speaker
8) Better to spell out loud than to write it down
9) Prefer ekspresi jokes rather than reading comics
10) Having problems with work involving Visual
11) Speak in a patterned rhythm
12) Can repeat and imitate tone, rhythm and sound color
b) Strategies to facilitate the auditory child’s learning process:
1. Encourage the child to participate in discussions both in the classroom and within the family.
2. Encourage the child to read the subject matter out loud.
3. Use music to teach children.
4. Discuss ideas with children verbally.
5. Let the child record the subject matter into the tape and encourage him to listen to it before going to sleep.
3. Kinesthetic learning style (learning by moving, working and touching)
Kinesthetic learning style is a learning activity by moving, working and touching. Learners of this type have a uniqueness in learning that is always moving, the activity of the five senses, and touch. Learners are hard to sit still for hours because their desire for activity and exploration is very strong. They feel they can learn better if the process is accompanied by physical activity. Students with this type like to try and generally less neat and weak in ekspresi activity.
a) The characteristics of kinesthetic learning styles:
1) Speak slowly
2) Neat appearance
3) Not too easily disturbed by situations of commotion
4) Learning through manipulation and practice
5) Memorize by walking and seeing
6) Using the finger as a guide when reading
7) Feeling difficult to write but great at telling stories
8) Likes books and they reflect action with body movement while reading
9) Love the busy game
10) Can not remember geography, unless they have ever been there
11) Touch people to get their attention Using words that contain action
b) Strategies to facilitate the kinesthetic child’s learning process:
1. Do not force children to learn for hours.
2. Encourage the child to learn while exploring the environment (for example: take him or her to read while biking, use actual objects to learn new concepts).
3. Allow the child to chew gum while studying.
4. Use bright colors to filter out important things in the reading.
5. Allow children to learn while listening to music.
Meanwhile, according to Fleming and Mills in Slamento (2003) proposed a learning style category in four Visual, Auditory, Read-write, Kinestetic rashes known as short VARK. Here’s a learning style explanation (Learning Style) by Fleming and Mills:
1. Visual Style (V)
Visiual learning (Visual Learning Style) is a learning style by looking so that the eye plays an important role. Visual learning style is done by someone to obtain information by looking at pictures, diagrams, maps, posters, graphics, text data such as writing, and so on
The tendency of Visual Learning Style usually involves describing information in the form of maps, diagrams, garfik, flow charts and visual symbols such as arrows, circles, hierarchies and other materials that instructors use to present things that can be conveyed in words. This includes also designs, patterns, forms and other formats used to mark and convey information.
People who have Visual Learning Style have characteristics or characteristics, among others: 1) Always see the lips of teachers who are teaching; 2) Likes written instructions, photos and illustrations for viewing; 3) When the instructions for doing something are usually given to see other new friends acting alone; 4) Tend to use body movements to express or change a word when expressing something; 5) Less likes to talk in front of groups and less like to listen to others; 6) Usually can not recall information provided orally; 7) Likes diagrams, calendars and time-line graphs to remember the part of events; 8) Always observe all the physical elements of the learning environment; 9) Prefers demonstrations rather than ekspresi explanations; 10) Usually this type can sit quietly in the middle of a noisy or crowded situation without feeling disturbed; 11) Organize learning materials carefully; 12) Trying to remember and understand using diagrams, tables and maps; 13) Studying the material by reading notes and making a summary
Based on the characteristics of the Visual Learning Style, the appropriate medium or medium for the Visual Learner Tife learning style include: 1) a teacher who uses body language or images in a state of explanation; 2) Media images, videos, posters and so on; 3) Books that contain many diagrams or drawings; 4) Flow chart; 5) Graphs; 6) Marking important parts of teaching materials using different colors; 7) Visual symbols. Therefore identify the characteristics of learning styles of students so that teachers can choose the right media or media
The Learning Strategies for Visual Learner’s Tife learning style according to Mansur HR are as follows: (a) Let them sit on the front bench so they can immediately see what the teacher is writing or depicting on the board. (B) Make more charts, diagrams, flow charts in explaining things. (C) Play the movie. (D) Ask them to write down the key points to be memorized. (E) Use various illustrations and drawings. (F) Rewrite what is on the board. (G) Use different colors on the writing.
2. Aural or Auditory Learning (A)
Learning Style Auditory is a learning style that a person does to gain information by utilizing the ear senses. Therefore they rely heavily on ears to achieve learning success, such as listening to lectures, radio, dialogue, discussion and so on This Learning Style describes the preference for information being heard or spoken. Students with this modality learn best from lectures, tutorials, group discussion tapes, talk and talk about materials. It includes speaking in a loud voice or talking to yourself.
Based on the above explanation, the characteristics or characteristics of Auditory Learner learning styles include: 1) Be able to remember well what they say and what others say; 2) Given well with the way always utter with a loud tone and repeating the sentence; 3) Very fond of group discussion; 4) Likes longer discussions especially for things they do not understand; 5) Be able to remember well the material discussed in groups or classes; 6) Get to know lots of songs or TV commercials and can even mimic them correctly and completely; 7) Likes to speak; 8) Lack of reading assignment (and generally not a good reader); 9) Less able to remember well what he has just read; 10) Lack of working on writing or writing tasks; 11) Less attention to new things in the surrounding environment such as: the presence of a new child, a new bulletin board etc; 12) It is difficult to work quietly without making a sound; 13) Easily disturbed by sound concentration and also difficult to concentrate when there is no sound at all
In accordance with these characteristics, the media or facilities suitable for the learning style of tife Aural or Auditory Learning include: 1) Attending classes; 2) Discussion; 3) Discussing a topic with friends; 4) Discussing a topic together with the teacher; 5) Explaining new ideas to others; 6) Using the recorder; 7) Remembering stories, examples or interesting jokes; 8) Explain the material obtained visually (images, power point etc.)
The learning strategies for Aural or Auditory Learning style according to Mansur HR are as follows: (a) Use audio in learning (music, radio, etc.), (b) When learning, let them read aloud and loud. (C) Often question them. (D) Create a class discussion. (E) Using the recording. (F) Let them explain in words. (G) Let them write what they understand about a subject. (H) Learning in groups.
3. Read – Write
In addition to learning styles that emphasize the listening aspect, there are also learning styles that have more aspects of reading and writing. In someone who has a learning style like this he will more easily understand the learning materials by reading or writing. The medium or media that is suitable for learning style tife Read – Write, among others: Dictionary, Handout, Textbooks, Notes, Lists, Essays, Read the manual and share other types of activities related to reading and writing.
The learning strategy for learning style tife Read – Write, among others 1) Write the words repeatedly; 2) Read your notes (silently) repeatedly; 3) Rewrite ideas or information with different sentences; 4) Translate all diagrams, pictures, and so on into words.
4. Kinestetic or Tactile Learner (K)
Kinesthetic Learning Styles) is a way of learning that a person does to get information by doing movement, touch, practice or a direct learning experience. This Learning Style leads to experience and practice (simulation or real, though the experience involves other modalities.This includes demonstrations, Simulations, videos and movies of the original lesson, as well as case studies, exercises and applications.
Based on the above explanation, cirri or characteristics Kinestetic learning style or Tactile Learner, among others; 1) Love to touch everything it encounters; 2) Difficult to keep silent; 3) Likes to do everything by hand; 4) Usually have good body coordination; 5) Likes to use real objects as learning aids; 6) Learning abstract things (mathematical symbols, maps etc); 7) Considering well when physically active in the learning process; 8) Enjoy the opportunity to organize or handle physically the learning materials; 9) Often trying to make notes just to occupy themselves without utilizing the records; 10) Love the use of computers 11) Express interest and interest in something physically by working enthusiastically; 12) It is difficult to ask whether to remain silent or to be in a place for some time without physical activity; 13) Often play around with objects around while listening or doing something
Based on these characteristics, the medium or means that can be used for the Kinestetic or Tactile Learner Learning Styles, among others 1) Using all the five senses: sight, touch, taste, smell, hearing; 2) Laboratory; 3) Field visit; 4) Speakers who provide real life examples; 5) Application; 6) Exhibition, sample, photography; 7) Collection of various kinds of plants, insects and so on.
Learning strategies for learning style Kinestetic tactile or Tactile Learner, according to Mansur HR are as follows: (a) Expand the practice field. (B) Conduct demonstrations or live performances of a process. (C) Make models or examples. (D) Learning does not have to be seated formally, it can be done by sitting in a comfortable position, although not usually done by other students. E) Expand the practice in the laboratory. (F) It is possible to memorize something while moving, walking or pacing for example. (G) Expand simulation and role playing. (H) Let the student stand while explaining something.
C. Ways To Know Or Learn About Student Learning Styles
How to know or know the style of learning according to Wijaya Kusumah students in http://www.gayabelajar.net we can do, among others through:
1) Using detailed observation of each learner through the use of various teaching methods in the classroom. To familiarize learners who have an auditory learning style, use lecture methods in general. Next notice and note the learners who like to listen diligently to the end. From here we can simply classify the types of learners with a more prominent auditory style.
2) By assigning tasks to learners to perform work that requires the unification of separate parts, for example, uniting the model of the house where the parts are separated. There are three possible ways in which to unite the model of this house, (1) is to practice hands-on by trying to unite parts of the house after looking at the pieces; (2) is to look at the design drawings of the house as a whole, just starting to unify; And (3) is to read the written instructions the steps required to build the house from beginning to end.
3) Conduct survey or learning style test. This style of learning test usually involves the services of a particular consultant or psychologist. Because this learning style test uses a well-tested methodology, it is usually a high-accuracy survey or style test that makes it easy for teachers to get to know the learning style of the learner.
D. Factors Affecting Students’ Learning Styles
According to Rita Dunn in (Sugihartono, 2007) pioneers in other learning styles have found many variables that influence student learning style, dianatranya: physical, emotional, sociological, and environment. Some people can learn well in bright light, while others can only learn if the lighting is bleak. There are some people who best accomplish their learning tasks in groups, while others prefer to learn for themselves because it is more effective. Some people choose to study with the background music accompaniment, while others can not learn unless in a lonely atmosphere. Some people choose their work environment neatly, but others always hold everything out for everything to be seen.
Meanwhile, according to David Kolb in Ghufron and Risnawati, student learning styles are influenced by personality type, habit or habit, and evolve with time and experience.
Based on the above explanation, many factors can influence the way and style of student learning. In addition to the factors that exist within the person itself (internal factors), there are many factors that come from outside the individual itself (external factors).
1) Internal factors that influence the learning style of students
a) Physical factors
Physical factors include two parts: health and disability. Health factors affect the learning activities. Learning process will be disrupted if the health of a person is disturbed, but it will also be tired, less excited, easily dizzy, drowsy when the body is weak, lack of blood or any interference on the senses and body. While the disability of the body is something that causes less good or less perfect about the body. The defects can be blind, half blind, deaf, half deaf, broken legs, paralyzed and others. Such a state of disability also affects a person’s learning activities.
b) Psychological factors
There are at least seven factors that fall into the psychological factors that influence learning. These factors are intelligence, attention, interest, talent, motive, maturity and readiness.
c) Fatigue factor
Fatigue in humans although difficult to separate but can be divided into two kinds of physical fatigue and spiritual fatigue (psychic). Physical fatigue is seen by decreasing the immune system. While spiritual fatigue can be seen with the lack of interest in learning, lethargy and boredom to learn, so the interest and drive to produce something is lost. The fatigue factor in a person is different. Therefore, it needs a different way or learning style.
2) External factors
a) Family factors
Someone who learns will receive influence from the family in the way of educating people, relationships between family members, household atmosphere and family economic situation.
b) School Factors
School factors that will affect the way or style of learning of students include teaching methods, curriculum, teacher relationships with students, student relationships with students, discipline or school rules, learning atmosphere, standard lessons, the state of the building, the location of schools, and others. Teacher factors such as teacher personality, teacher’s ability to facilitate students and the relationship between teachers and students also influence the way or style of student learning.
c) Community factors
Society is an external factor that also affects the student’s learning style. Societal factors that influence the way or style of student learning include the activities of learners in the community, mass media, social friends and community life forms.
E. The Importance of Knowing Student Styles
First, the teacher. By knowing the learning styles of students, teachers can choose teaching methods and educational media suitable for learners. In this case, teachers’ creativity is required in varying teaching methods and in the choice of educational media. Thus, expected differences in learning styles among learners can be accommodated well.
Nasution (2003: 115) states that, various teaching methods have been widely applied and tested to the Students to obtain effective results in the learning process. In reality there is no one better teaching method than the other teaching methods. If the various teaching methods have been established and do not show the expected results, then another alternative that can be done by individual teachers in the learning process is on the basis of understanding Student learning style.
Bobbi dePorter and Hernacki (2003: 110) mentioned that knowing different learning styles has helped teachers everywhere to be able to approach all or nearly all students by simply passing information in different styles.
Both parents. For parents knowing their child’s learning style, it is possible for them to provide learning facilities that match their children’s learning style at home. This can be done by providing books and pictures for children with visual learning styles, providing learning tapes and often discussing with auditory-style children, and providing practical tools for children with a kinesthetic learning style tendency.
Third, learners. By knowing your own learning style, learners can create their favorite atmosphere for learning. Whether it is by setting music, discussing with friends or parents, and so on. Thus expected learners motivation can be increased.