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# Concept Achievement Model (Model Achievement Concept)

- 28 Desember 2018
- Posted by: admin
- Category: Tak Berkategori

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A.

**Understanding Concept Achievement Model** The learning model of this

**Concept Achievement**departs from a study of the processes of thinking undertaken by Bruner, Goodnow, and Austin (in Suherman and Winataputra, 1992) which suggest that this model is designed to help learn concepts that can be used to organize information so as to facilitate to learn the concept effectively, analyze, and develop concepts. The

**Achievement Model This concept**is also an efficient model for presenting organized information in different fields of study, one of the hallmarks of this conceptualizing model is that it enhances the ability to learn in an easier and more effective way. Eggen and Kauchak (2012: 218) state the

**conceptual achievement model**is a learning model designed to help students of all ages develop and strengthen their understanding of concepts and practice critical thinking skills. In this learning model, students are not provided with the formulation of a concept, but they find the concept based on examples that have an emphasis on the characteristics of the concept. In the learning of this conceptualization, the teacher demonstrates the examples and examples of a concept imaginable. While students hypothesize what the probability of the concept might be, analyze their hypotheses by looking at examples and non-examples, which ultimately arrive at the concept in question. There are two important things in learning that use learning

**achievement model concept**that is 1) determine the level of concept achievement, and 2) concept analysis. 1. Determining the Level of

**Concept Achievement** The expected level of attainment of the students depends greatly on the complexity of the concept, and the level of students’ cognitive development. There are students who learn concepts at a low concrete level or identity level, some are able to reach concepts at the classification level or formal level.

2. Concept Analysis

Conceptual analysis is a procedure developed to assist teachers in planning sequences of conceptual achievement teaching. To analyze the concept of teachers should pay attention to several things, among others:

(1) concept name,

(2) attribute attributes and variable attributes of the concept,

(3) definition of concept,

(4) examples and non-examples of concepts, and

(5) the conceptual relationship with other concepts.

B. Syntax or Step-by-Step Applying Implementation Model

1) Implementation stages (Syntax)

Phase One: Data Presentation and Concept Identification

At this stage the teacher gives examples in the form of application of the concept. This is done raises the persoalan and pemecahaannnya. In this activity the student must be actively involved whenever possible in giving examples, from the concept being taught. This is necessary so that students can explain examples of the concepts they are studying.

Once the examples of problems and solutions are considered sufficient, students are re-examined to examine the examples to compare, as well as determine the characteristics and are asked to define or derive the definition of the concept.

Example Steps of teacher activity, among others

1. The teacher presents examples that have been named (labeled),

2. Teacher asks for student interpretation

3. Teacher asks student to define

Example Steps of student activity, among others

1. Students compare positive examples and negative examples,

2. Students submit their interpretation results,

3. Students awaken and test the hypothesis,

4. Student declares a definition according to its essence attribute

Phase Two: Testing

**Concept Achievement** At this stage students are asked to look for examples in the form of other problems that can be solved with the concept, based on those already identified. The examples put forward by the students are then informed by the definitions identified at stage one.

If at this stage students have not been able to provide the right example, then teachers need to direct students to be able to find or determine the right example. The main pedony for students in identifying these examples is the traits or definitions they have formulated.

Example Steps of teacher activity, among others

1. The teacher asks the students to identify additional examples that are not named,

2. The teacher confirms the hypothesis, the names of the concepts, and restates the definition according to its essence attributes,

3. The teacher asks for other examples

Example Steps of student activity, among others

1. Students give examples,

2. Students give the concept name,

3. Students look for other examples

Third Phase: Thinking Strategy Analysis

At this stage the teacher presents a new persoalan and asks students to complete it by applying the concept. Here the teacher tries to release the students themselves, to apply the knowledge of the concept.

At the end of this student is required to express the work done. Here teachers together with students analyze the thinking strategies that students have used in applying concepts to solve problems.

Example Steps of teacher activity, among others

1. Teacher asks why and how

2. The teacher guides the discussion

Example Steps of student activity, among others

1. Students describe their thinking,

2. Students discuss the role of hypothesis and its attributes,

3. Students discuss their thoughts

C. Impact of

**Concept Achievement Learning** The nature of the use of a model of learning is to support the achievement of learning outcomes optimally, both learning outcomes in the form of the main objectives of learning and learning outcomes in the form of accompaniment goals. Joice & Weils (2000) refers to the main purpose of instructional effect as an instructional effect (modelal effect) model and companion objectives as a model nurturant effect.

The use of the

**Concept Achievement Learning model**is also expected to optimize the impact of instructional and companion impact. The instructional impacts and impact impacts of the PMKM Model are as follows. a. Instructional Impact

1) Mastery of Teaching Materials

A distinctive feature that distinguishes the learning model to foster metacognitive abilities with the learning model often used by teachers so far is the existence of teaching and pelatihan of cognitive strategies (learning strategies), both in understanding the material and in persoalan solving. The use of appropriate learning strategies in learning can make the learning process becomes more meaningful, so the achievement of learning outcomes (mastery of teaching materials) to be optimal.

2) Metacognitive Ability in Understanding Matter

Metacognitive ability to understand the material is classified as an instructional impact in this learning model, because students are directed directly to the goal of increasing their metacognitive abilities in addition to the mastery of the intended teaching materials. The metacognitive ability to understand the material intended in the PMKM Model is the ability to select, use, and control learning strategies in understanding the material, including: strategies to highlight important ideas / strategies, marginal notes, summary strategies, and concept maps . In the conventional learning model, teachers often require students to be able to master the material well, but never teach and train students about learning strategies in understanding the material well. In contrast to this learning model students are taught and trained to select, use, and control cognitive strategies in understanding the material.

3) Metacognitive Ability in Troubleshooting

Metacognitive ability of persoalan solving is classified as an instructional impact in this learning model, because students are directed directly to the goal of enhancing metacognitive abilities of persoalan solving in addition to mastery of mathematics teaching materials. The metacognitive capabilities of persoalan solving that are intended in the PMKM Model are the ability to select, use, and control learning strategies in problem-solving learning, which include: the use of heuristics, advanced thinking procedures, reverse thinking procedures, inductive thinking procedures, and deductive thinking procedures. In the conventional learning model, teachers often require students to solve problems well, but never teach and train their students about good problem-solving strategies. In contrast to this learning model students are taught and trained to select, use, and control cognitive strategies in solving problems.

b. Companion Impact

1) Independence in Learning

Armed with declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, and conditional knowledge, as well as skills in using and controlling cognitive strategies, students can become more independent in learning. Through continuous pelatihan students can choose their own cognitive strategies that fit their style and type of learning, as well as in accordance with the characteristics of the material learned and the characteristics of the persoalan to be solved.

2) Activity Learning

Some of the phases of syntax provide more space and opportunities for students to play an active role in the learning process. At these phases, student involvement is dominant in directly applying various cognitive strategies, both in understanding the material and in persoalan solving.

3) Positive Attitude

The continued impact of students’ ability to choose, use, and control the use of cognitive strategies and the dominant student involvement in the learning process is the creation of a pleasant learning environment. Students are no longer enveloped by the assumptions that subjects are difficult to learn. Thus, the application of this learning model can also foster a positive attitude of students to the subjects.

D. Modification of

**Learning Model Implementation of Concept**through Scientific Learning. Can the

**conceptual learning model**be applicable in Scientific Learning? The following modification of the author on the steps of Implementation Model Implementation Learning Concept Through Scientific Learning. Phase One: Data Presentation and Concept Identification

• Observing.

Observing is related to the activity of the five human senses which is conferred by God to observe the learning object meaningfully (meaningfull learning). Therefore, to facilitate learning, at the beginning of learning activities are considered important to demonstrate interesting and useful learning objects, of course selected learning objects that are relevant to the theme of learning. The object does not have to be fancy or expensive, simple as long as it is easy to use and interesting.

In learning-based achievement of the concept of teachers can provide images or other observation objects associated with the concepts that must be understood by students according to KI and KD being taught. Such images or objects may be given additional information depending on the teacher’s interpretation of the learner’s abilities. If an image or object is expected to cause difficulties to be interpreted by the student may be given a brief explanation of the image or object.

At this stage the application of learning achievement of the concept is done by observing the image or object of observation. An example of the implementation of concept-based learning in PPKn is about norms. Teachers can provide pictures as examples of the application of norms, whether images that conform to the norm or image rules that are not in accordance with the norm rule. Students individually or group are guided to observe the image or object of observation.

• Questioning.

The ability to ask one of them aims to arouse curiosity, train learners to argue according to their capacity, learn to accept differences of opinions, stimulate learners to re-think, and at the same time learn how to politely in asking or responding to questions well.

In concept-based learning, the teacher asks students to ask questions or to create questions related to the image. Even student’s questions may still be commonly responded well by other students as well as by teachers as a reinforcement of student answers.

Phase Two: Testing

**Concept Achievement** • Experimenting and Associating

Trying is a learning activity that gives students the opportunity to do, try, or experience. Trying to do that can be realized in the form of experimental activities or real experience. While reasoning is the ability to categorize a variety of ideas and associate a variety of events that later mamasukkannya become a fragment of memory (Kemendikbud, 2013: 215). The experiences stored in the memory of the brain relate to or interact with previously available experiences. This process is known as association or reasoning.

In the application of concept-based learning this step can be done by dividing the students in small groups, then each group gets the task of library studies to seek the definition or understanding of the concepts referred. After this activity is completed then students are trained to try to connect the concepts in real life. Each group of students is asked to draw pictures or stories related to the concepts.

In my experiments, at the level of the students’ abilities that are deemed incapable of making drawings or stories related to concepts, the practice of connecting concepts in real life can also be done through a game of drawing. In this stage the teacher should prepare a drawing of the concept and then the students choose or install the picture, and demand that the students give the reason for the choice.

• Communicating (Communicating)

In simple form, communicating means presenting or showing the results of their work to the public, orally or in writing, or other forms of work so as to gain a broader response. In limited space, learners simply present the conclusions of their work in front of their friends in the classroom.

In the application of concept-based learning this step can be done by asking students to present the results of group work that has been done at the stage of trying (Experimenting) and reasoning (associating). Presentations can be in the form of discussions, guest visits, exhibitions and other results depending on the steps teachers prepare.

Third Phase: Thinking Strategy Analysis

Implementation of learning

**achievement model concept**in this stage can be done by giving follow up in the form of assignment of individual or group by giving new persoalan and ask student to finish it by applying concept. Reference:

Eggen, Paul and Kauchak donald P. 2012. Learning Strategies and Models: Teaching Content and Thinking Skills. Translated By: Satrio Wahono. Jakarta: Index.

Joyce, Bruce; Weil, Marsha; & Showers, B. 1992. Models of Teaching. Fourth Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Joyce, B. R., & Weil, M. (2000). Models of Teaching and Learning; Where Do They Come From and How Are They Used? In Models of Teaching (6th ed., Pp. 13-28). Allyn and Bacon.

Suherman, E and Saripuddin, U, Winataputra. (1991) Learning Strategy for IPS Economics, Module 1-9. Jakarta: Open University, Department of Education and Culture